Precision medicine is an approach to disease prevention and treatment that considers genetic variability, and environmental and lifestyle influences that are unique to each patient. It facilitates stratification of patient populations that vary in their susceptibility to disease and response to therapy. It is a strategy that uses the unique genomic and biological characteristics of a patient to identify treatment specific targets. Analysis of the genome and unique molecular profile of patients with chronic diseases has revealed new, potentially actionable therapeutic targets. Precision medicine has been shown to be an increasingly successful approach to cancer therapy. Biomarkers enable target specific treatments that are more reliable in predicting response to treatment and result in better health outcomes. Recent successes in the use of immunity-inducing antibodies have stimulated increased interest in the use of precision immunotherapy of cancer. Continued interrogation of the human genome will reveal new actionable targets for patients with chronic diseases resulting in improved therapeutic efficacy. The application of the principals of precision health and medicine in dentistry will dramatically alter dental education and dental practice.