Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is defined as a “disorder of breathing during sleep characterized by prolonged partial upper airway obstruction and/or intermittent complete obstruction that disrupts normal ventilation during sleep and normal sleep patterns.” OSAS is both prevalent and underdiagnosed in children. OSAS has harmful central nervous system, cardiovascular, and metabolic consequences, which can include an inability to concentrate in school, poor academic performance, behavioral problems, cardiovascular effects, and poor growth and development. Apneas in children are produced by an imbalance between upper airway load and neuromuscular tone. Many factors influence these attributes, but the most important are adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obesity. History and examination are fundamental areas that dentists can use to help diagnose OSAS in pediatric patients. Full-night polysomnography is the gold standard for obtaining a definitive diagnosis. Dental practitioners also can play a crucial role in the treatment and management of this condition.